The purpose of this research is to measure the extent of lung inflammation between different groups of participants using a radioactive tracer called [18F]NOS. A radioactive tracer is a type of imaging drug that is labeled with a radioactive tag and injected into the body. This study will see how the tracer is taken up in the lungs using an imaging scan called Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography (PET/CT). [18F]NOS is an experimental radioactive molecule used in PET imaging to measure inflammation in various organs in the body. We are interested in studying whether there are differences in lung inflammation between E-cigarette users (vapers) cigarette smokers and non-smokers. [18F]NOS has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use except in a research study. The use of [18F]NOS in this study is allowed under an Investigational New Drug Application approved by the FDA.
We are also going to be studying how the information from the PET/CT scan compares to other markers of inflammation in the blood. During the PET scan, we will image Brain and Lungs in order to see if there is a difference between inflammation seen in the brain and the lungs and if these differences change depending on whether a subject is a smoker, e-cigarette user or non-smoker.
Consented participant in this study will undergo one (1) experimental [18F]NOS PET/CT scan. During the scan, PET/CT images will be taken of their chest/torso in order to capture their lungs and a short image will be taken of their brain. Blood samples will be taken at various time points to test for markers of inflammation and to measure the concentration of the tracer in their blood during the scan and they will undergo some specific psychological questionnaires and tasks.