Effects Of Ingesting An Energy Bar On Performance And Recovery


Subjective rating of hypoglycemia [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

A subjective Likert scale that asked participants to rank the frequency and severity of their symptoms of hypoglycemia using the following scale: 0 (none), 1-4 (light), 5-6 (mild), 7-9 (severe), or 10 (very severe). Data will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Subjective rating of dizziness [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

A subjective Likert scale that asked participants to rank the frequency and severity of their symptoms of dizziness using the following scale: 0 (none), 1-4 (light), 5-6 (mild), 7-9 (severe), or 10 (very severe). Data will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Subjective rating of headaches [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

A subjective Likert scale that asked participants to rank the frequency and severity of their symptoms of headache using the following scale: 0 (none), 1-4 (light), 5-6 (mild), 7-9 (severe), or 10 (very severe). Data will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Subjective rating of fatigue [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

A subjective Likert scale that asked participants to rank the frequency and severity of their perceptions of fatigue using the following scale: 0 (none), 1-4 (light), 5-6 (mild), 7-9 (severe), or 10 (very severe). Data will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Subjective rating of stomach upset [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

A subjective Likert scale that asked participants to rank the frequency and severity of their symptoms of stomach upset using the following scale: 0 (none), 1-4 (light), 5-6 (mild), 7-9 (severe), or 10 (very severe). Data will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Subjective rating of readiness to perform [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

A subjective Likert scale assessing readiness to perform on a visual analog scale (VAS) measured prior to supplementation, following exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise. The scale ranges from “1” – strongly disagree they are ready to perform to “5” – they strongly agree they are ready to perform. Data will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Subjective rating of pain [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

A subjective Likert scale that assessed perceptions of pain in response the application of a standard amount of pressure applied using an algometer and measured prior to supplementation, following exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise. The scale was a straight horizontal-line with no hash-markings only wording beneath the line, which read from left-to-right “no pain, dull ache, slight pain, more slight pain, painful, very painful, and unbearable pain”. Participants were instructed to scribe one clear mark bisecting the line which represented their pain level the best for each of the three pressure application sites. A ruler was used to measure the participant’s mark from the left-to-right in cm and was recorded in the data as such numerical value. Data will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Agility Performance Time [TimeFrame:Measured 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing 60-min of resistance exercise during each treatment.]

Time in seconds to perform 3 sprints around 4 cones for the Nebraska Agility Drill (NAD) with 30-seconds recovery. The tests were performed after completing the resistance exercise once during each treatment. Individual and cumulative performance times were assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Sprint Performance Times [TimeFrame:Measured 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing 60-min of resistance exercise during each treatment.]

Measured as the time (in seconds) it takes to sprint three 40-yard dashes with 30-seconds recovery. The tests were performed after completing the resistance exercise once during each treatment. Individual and cumulative performance times will be assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg extension torque [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Newton meters assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg extension force [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Newtons assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg extension power [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Watts assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg extension work [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Joules assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg flexion torque [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Newton Meters assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg flexion force [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Newtons assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg flexion power [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Watts assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) leg flexion work [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation, following 30-min rest and 80-min of exercise, and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise during each treatment.]

Measured using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer and expressed in Joules assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Catabolism: Blood Urea Nitrogen [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood urea nitrogen in mmol/L (BUN) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Catabolism: Creatinine [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood creatinine (umol/L) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Catabolism: Lactate Dehydrogenase [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood LDH (IUl/L) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Catabolism: Creatine Kinase [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood CK (IUl/L) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Catabolism: BUN/Creatinine Ratio [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood BUN/creatinine ratio obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Stress and Sex Hormones: Cortisol [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood cortisol (ug/dL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Stress and Sex Hormones: Testosterone [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood testosterone (ng/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Stress and Sex Hormones: Cortisol to Testosterone Ratio [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in the ratio of cortisol to testosterone obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Inflammation: Interferon Gama (IFNy) [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood IFNy (pg/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Inflammation: Interleukin-13 (IL-13) [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood IL-13 (pg/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Inflammation: Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood IL-1 (pg/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Inflammation: Interleukin-4 beta (IL-4) [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood IL-4 (pg/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Inflammation: Interleukin-6 beta (IL-6) [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood IL-6 (pg/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Inflammation: Interleukin-8 beta (IL-8) [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood IL-8 (pg/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).

Markers of Inflammation: Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF?) [TimeFrame:Measured prior to supplementation (Pre), 30-min after ingestion of supplement and after performing the 80-min exercise bout (Post-Exercise), and after 48 hours of recovery from exercise bout (Recovery) during each treatment.]

Changes in serum blood TNF? (pg/mL) obtained from venous blood draws and assessed via General Linear Model multivariate and univariate analyses with repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI’s).


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